Go语言-json解析

摘要

JSON(Javascript Object Notation, JS 对象标记)是一种轻量级的数据交换语言,它基于 ECMAScript 规范的一个子集,采用完全独立于编程语言的文本格式来存储和表示数据。简洁和清晰的层次结构使得 JSON 成为理想的数据交换语言。 易于人阅读和编写,同时也易于机器解析和生成,并有效地提升网络传输效率。

JSON与XML最大的不同在于XML是一个完整的标记语言,而JSON不是。JSON由于比XML更小、更快,更易解析,以及浏览器的內建快速解析支持,使得其更适用于网络数据传输领域。

encoding/json

Marshal解析输出json

针对JSON的输出,我们在定义struct tag的时候需要注意几点:

  • 字段的tag是“-”,那么这个字段不会输出到JSON
  • tag中带有自定义名称,那么这个自定义名称会出现在JSON的字段名中
  • tag中如果带有“omitempty”选项,那么如果该字段值为空,就不会输出到JSON串中
  • 如果字段类型是bool,string,int,int64等,而tag中带有“,string”选项,那么这个字段在输出到JSON的时候会把该字段对应的值转换成JSON字符串
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func Marshal(v interface{})([]byte, error)

简单应用

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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
)

type Stu struct {
Name string `json:"name"`
Age int
HIgh bool
sex string
Class *Class `json:"class"`
}

type Class struct {
Name string
Grade int
}

func main() {
//实例化一个数据结构,用于生成json字符串
stu := Stu{
Name: "张三",
Age: 18,
HIgh: true,
sex: "男",
}

//指针变量
cla := new(Class)
cla.Name = "1班"
cla.Grade = 3
stu.Class = cla

//Marshal失败时err!=nil
jsonStu, err := json.Marshal(stu)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("生成json字符串错误")
}

//jsonStu是[]byte类型,转化成string类型便于查看
fmt.Println(string(jsonStu))
os.Stdout.Write(jsonStu)
}
  • 只要是可导出成员(变量首字母大写),都可以转成json。因成员变量sex是不可导出的,故无法转成json。
  • 如果变量打上了json标签,如Name旁边的 json:"name" ,那么转化成的json key就用该标签“name”,否则取变量名作为key,如“Age”,“HIgh”。
  • bool类型也是可以直接转换为json的value值。Channel, complex 以及函数不能被编码json字符串。当然,循环的数据结构也不行,它会导致marshal陷入死循环。
  • 指针变量,编码时自动转换为它所指向的值,如cla变量。
    (当然,不传指针,Stu struct的成员Class如果换成Class struct类型,效果也是一模一样的。只不过指针更快,且能节省内存空间。)

interface

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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
"os"
)

type Stu struct {
Name interface{} `json:"name"`
Age interface{}
HIgh interface{}
sex interface{}
Class interface{} `json:"class"`
}

type Class struct {
Name string
Grade int
}

func main() {
//实例化一个数据结构,用于生成json字符串
stu := Stu{
Name: "张三",
Age: 18,
HIgh: true,
sex: "男",
}

//指针变量
cla := new(Class)
cla.Name = "1班"
cla.Grade = 3
stu.Class = cla

//Marshal失败时err!=nil
jsonStu, err := json.Marshal(stu)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("生成json字符串错误")
}

//jsonStu是[]byte类型,转化成string类型便于查看
fmt.Println(string(jsonStu))
os.Stdout.Write(jsonStu)

}

slice

https://blog.csdn.net/zxy_666/article/details/80173288

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//正确示范

//方式1:只声明,不分配内存
var stus1 []*StuRead

//方式2:分配初始值为0的内存
stus2 := make([]*StuRead,0)

//错误示范
//new()只能实例化一个struct对象,而[]StuRead是切片,不是对象
stus := new([]StuRead)

stu1 := StuRead{成员赋值...}
stu2 := StuRead{成员赋值...}

//由方式1和2创建的切片,都能成功追加数据
//方式2最好分配0长度,append时会自动增长。反之指定初始长度,长度不够时不会自动增长,导致数据丢失
stus1 := appen(stus1,stu1,stu2)
stus2 := appen(stus2,stu1,stu2)

//成功编码
json1,_ := json.Marshal(stus1)
json2,_ := json.Marshal(stus2)

输出JSON数据串

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// generalJson
package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
)

type Server struct {
ServerName string `json:"serverName"`
ServerIP string `json:"serverIP"`
}

type Serverslice struct {
Servers []Server `json:"servers"`
}

func main() {

var s Serverslice
s.Servers = append(s.Servers, Server{ServerName: "Shanghai_VPN", ServerIP: "127.0.0.1"})
s.Servers = append(s.Servers, Server{ServerName: "Beijing_VPN", ServerIP: "127.0.0.2"})

b, err := json.Marshal(s)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("json err: ", err)
}

fmt.Println(string(b))
}

Marshal函数只有在转换成功的时候才会返回数据,在转换的过程中我们需要注意几点:

  • JSON对象只支持string作为key,所以要编码一个map,那么必须是map[string]T这种类型(T是Go语言中任意的类型)
  • Channel,complex和function是不能被编码成JSON的
  • 嵌套的数据时不能编码的,不然会让JSON编码进入死循环
  • 指针在编码的时候会输出指针指向的内容,而空指针会输出null
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// jsontest.go
package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"os"
)

type Server struct {
//ID不会导出到JSON
ID int `json:"-"`

//ServerName的值会进行二次JSON编码
ServerName string `json:"serverName"`
ServerName2 string `json:"serverName2, string"`

//如果ServerIP为空,则不输出到JSON中
ServerIP string `json:"serverIP,omitempty"`
Description string `json:"description,string"`
}

func main() {

s := Server{
ID: 3,
ServerName: `Go "1.0"`,
ServerName2: `Go "1.0"`,
ServerIP: ``,
Description: `描述信息`,
}

b, _ := json.Marshal(s)
os.Stdout.Write(b)
}

Unmarshal 解析json

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func Unmarshal(data [] byte, v interface{}) error

这个函数会把传入的 data 作为一个JSON来进行解析,解析后的数据存储在参数 v 中。这个参数 v 也是任意类型的参数(但一定是一个类型的指针),原因是我们在是以此函数进行JSON 解析的时候,这个函数不知道这个传入参数的具体类型,所以它需要接收所有的类型。

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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
)

func main() {
var jsonBlob = []byte(`[
{"Name": "Platypus", "Order": "Monotremata"},
{"Name": "Quoll", "Order": "Dasyuromorphia"}
]`)
type Animal struct {
Name string
Order string
}
var animals []Animal
err := json.Unmarshal(jsonBlob, &animals)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("error:", err)
}
fmt.Printf("%+v", animals)
}

Encoders and Decoders

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func NewDecoder(r io.Reader) *Decoder

type Decoder struct {
// contains filtered or unexported fields
}

type Encoder struct {
// contains filtered or unexported fields
}
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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
"io"
"log"
"strings"
)

func main() {
const jsonStream = `
{"Name": "Ed", "Text": "Knock knock."}
{"Name": "Sam", "Text": "Who's there?"}
{"Name": "Ed", "Text": "Go fmt."}
{"Name": "Sam", "Text": "Go fmt who?"}
{"Name": "Ed", "Text": "Go fmt yourself!"}
`
type Message struct {
Name, Text string
}
dec := json.NewDecoder(strings.NewReader(jsonStream))
for {
var m Message
if err := dec.Decode(&m); err == io.EOF {
break
} else if err != nil {
log.Fatal(err)
}
fmt.Printf("%s: %s\n", m.Name, m.Text)
}
}

解析到结构体

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// json.go
package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
)

type Server struct {
ServerName string
ServerIP string
}

type Serverslice struct {
Servers []Server
}

func main() {
var s Serverslice
str := `{"servers":[{"serverName":"Shanghai_VPN","serverIP":"127.0.0.1"},
{"serverName":"Beijing_VPN","serverIP":"127.0.0.2"}]}`

json.Unmarshal([]byte(str), &s)
fmt.Println(s)
fmt.Println(s.Servers[0].ServerIP)
}
  • 先定义了与JSON数据对应的结构体,以及与数组对应的slice
  • 字段名对应JSON里面的key
  • 解析:如果key是Foo
    • 在结构体里面查找含有Foo的可导出的struct字段(首字母大写)
    • 其次查找字段名是Foo的导出字段
    • 最后查找类似FOO或者FoO这样的除了首字母之外其他大小写不敏感的导出字段
  • 能够被赋值的字段必须是可导出字段(即首字母大写)
  • 同时JSON解析的时候只会解析能找到的字段,如果找不到的字段会被忽略
  • 这样的一个好处是:当你接收到一个很大的JSON数据结构而你却只想获取其中的部分数据的时候,你只需将你想要的数据对应的字段名大写

解析到interface

我们知道interface{}可以用来存储任意数据类型的对象,这种数据结构正好用于存储解析的未知结构的json数据的结果。

JSON包中采用map[string]interface{}[]interface{}结构来存储任意的JSON对象和数组。Go类型和JSON类型的对应关系如下:

  • bool: JSON booleans
  • float64: JSON numbers
  • string: JSON strings
  • nil: JSON null
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// tointer.go
package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
)

func main() {

b := []byte(`{"Name":"Wednesday", "Age":6, "Parents": [ "Gomez", "Moticia" ]}`)
var f interface{}
err := json.Unmarshal(b, &f)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
}

m := f.(map[string]interface{})

for k, v := range m {
switch vv := v.(type) {
case string:
fmt.Println(k, "is string", vv)
case int:
fmt.Println(k, "is int", vv)
case []interface{}:
fmt.Println(k, "is an array:")
for i, u := range vv {
fmt.Println(i, u)
}
default:
fmt.Println(k, "is of a type I don't know how to handle")
}
}
}

通过interface{}type assert的配合,我们就可以解析未知结构的JSON函数了

net/http中应用json

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package main

import (
"bytes"
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
"io"
"log"
"net/http"
"os"
)

type User struct {
Id string
Balance uint64
}

func main() {
// 通过POST或PUT或PATCH向服务端发送JSON
u := User{Id: "110", Balance: 8}
b := new(bytes.Buffer)
json.NewEncoder(b).Encode(u)
res, _ := http.Post("https://httpbin.org/post", "application/json; charset=utf-8", b)
io.Copy(os.Stdout, res.Body)

// 在服务端解析JSON
http.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
var u User
if r.Body == nil {
http.Error(w, "Please send a request body", 400)
return
}
err := json.NewDecoder(r.Body).Decode(&u)
if err != nil {
http.Error(w, err.Error(), 400)
return
}
fmt.Println(u.Id)
})
log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8080", nil))

// 构造服务端要返回的JSON
http.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
u := User{Id: "US123", Balance: 8}
json.NewEncoder(w).Encode(u)
})
log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8080", nil))

// 解析服务端返回的JSON
b1 := new(bytes.Buffer)
json.NewEncoder(b).Encode(u)
res1, _ := http.Post("https://httpbin.org/post", "application/json; charset=utf-8", b1)
var body struct {
// httpbin.org sends back key/value pairs, no map[string][]string
Headers map[string]string `json:"headers"`
Origin string `json:"origin"`
}
json.NewDecoder(res1.Body).Decode(&body)
fmt.Println(body)
}

完成例子

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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
"io/ioutil"
"net/http"
)

func main() {

url := "https://api.xuebaclass.com/xuebaapi/v1/provinces"

req, _ := http.NewRequest("GET", url, nil)

req.Header.Add("accept", "application/json")
req.Header.Add("content-type", "application/json")

res, _ := http.DefaultClient.Do(req)

defer res.Body.Close()
body, _ := ioutil.ReadAll(res.Body)

type Province struct {
Id int `json:"id"`
Province string `json:"province"`
}
provinces := make([]Province, 0)
err := json.Unmarshal([]byte(body), &provinces)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("error:", err)
}
fmt.Println(provinces)

}

go-simplejson

bitly公司开源了一个叫做simplejson的包,在处理未知结构体的JSON时相当方便,地址

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j, err := simplejson.NewJson([]byte(flow))
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("json解析错误")
}

json-iterator/go

解析速度最快的json解析器,它最多能比普通的解析器快 10 倍之多,即使在数据绑定的用法下也有同样的性能优势。

安装

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go get github.com/json-iterator/go

Marshal结构体解析到json

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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
"os"

jsoniter "github.com/json-iterator/go"
)

func main() {
type ColorGroup struct {
ID int
Name string
Colors []string
}
group := ColorGroup{
ID: 1,
Name: "Reds",
Colors: []string{"Crimson", "Red", "Ruby", "Maroon"},
}
b, err := json.Marshal(group)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("error:", err)
}
os.Stdout.Write(b)

var json_iterator = jsoniter.ConfigCompatibleWithStandardLibrary
b, err = json_iterator.Marshal(group)
os.Stdout.Write(b)
}

Unmarshal解析json到结构体

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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"

jsoniter "github.com/json-iterator/go"
)

func main() {
var jsonBlob = []byte(`[
{"Name": "Platypus", "Order": "Monotremata"},
{"Name": "Quoll", "Order": "Dasyuromorphia"}
]`)
type Animal struct {
Name string
Order string
}
var animals []Animal
err := json.Unmarshal(jsonBlob, &animals)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println("error:", err)
}
fmt.Printf("%+v", animals)

var animals2 []Animal
var json_iterator = jsoniter.ConfigCompatibleWithStandardLibrary
json_iterator.Unmarshal(jsonBlob, &animals2)
fmt.Printf("%+v", animals2)
}

jsoniter.Get解析不固定结构json

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package main

import (
"fmt"

jsoniter "github.com/json-iterator/go"
)

func main() {

val := []byte(`{"ID":1,"Name":"Reds","Colors":["Crimson","Red","Ruby","Maroon"]}`)
str := jsoniter.Get(val, "Colors", 0).ToString()
fmt.Println(str)
}

NewDecoder

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package main

import (
"fmt"
"strings"

jsoniter "github.com/json-iterator/go"
)

func main() {
json := jsoniter.ConfigCompatibleWithStandardLibrary
reader := strings.NewReader(`{"branch":"beta","change_log":"add the rows{10}","channel":"fros","create_time":"2017-06-13 16:39:08","firmware_list":"","md5":"80dee2bf7305bcf179582088e29fd7b9","note":{"CoreServices":{"md5":"d26975c0a8c7369f70ed699f2855cc2e","package_name":"CoreServices","version_code":"76","version_name":"1.0.76"},"FrDaemon":{"md5":"6b1f0626673200bc2157422cd2103f5d","package_name":"FrDaemon","version_code":"390","version_name":"1.0.390"},"FrGallery":{"md5":"90d767f0f31bcd3c1d27281ec979ba65","package_name":"FrGallery","version_code":"349","version_name":"1.0.349"},"FrLocal":{"md5":"f15a215b2c070a80a01f07bde4f219eb","package_name":"FrLocal","version_code":"791","version_name":"1.0.791"}},"pack_region_urls":{"CN":"https://s3.cn-north-1.amazonaws.com.cn/xxx-os/ttt_xxx_android_1.5.3.344.393.zip","default":"http://192.168.8.78/ttt_xxx_android_1.5.3.344.393.zip","local":"http://192.168.8.78/ttt_xxx_android_1.5.3.344.393.zip"},"pack_version":"1.5.3.344.393","pack_version_code":393,"region":"all","release_flag":0,"revision":62,"size":38966875,"status":3}`)
decoder := json.NewDecoder(reader)
params := make(map[string]interface{})
err := decoder.Decode(&params)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
} else {
fmt.Printf("%+v\n", params)
}
// 第二层如何解析目前还不清楚
}

json对比

https://www.cnblogs.com/wangzhao765/p/9662331.html

json 文件

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// json01.json
{
"id":1,
"name":"testjson01",
"isadmin":true
}

// json02.json
{
"isadmin":true,
"name":"testjson01",
"id":1
}

对比

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package main

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
"io/ioutil"
"reflect"
)

func LoadJson(path string, dist interface{}) (err error) {
var content []byte
if content, err = ioutil.ReadFile(path); err == nil {
err = json.Unmarshal(content, dist)
}
return err
}

func main() {
var (
json1 map[string]interface{}
json2 map[string]interface{}
)
if err := LoadJson("./json01.json", &json1); err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
}
if err := LoadJson("./json02.json", &json2); err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
}
fmt.Println(reflect.DeepEqual(json1, json2))
}

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package service

import (
"encoding/json"
"fmt"
"io/ioutil"
"reflect"
"strings"
)

type JsonDiff struct {
HasDiff bool
Result string
}

func JsonCompare(left, right map[string]interface{}, n int) (string, bool) {
diff := &JsonDiff{HasDiff: false, Result: ""}
jsonDiffDict(left, right, 1, diff)
if diff.HasDiff {
if n < 0 {
return diff.Result, diff.HasDiff
} else {
return processContext(diff.Result, n), diff.HasDiff
}
}
return "", diff.HasDiff
}

func marshal(j interface{}) string {
value, _ := json.Marshal(j)
return string(value)
}

func jsonDiffDict(json1, json2 map[string]interface{}, depth int, diff *JsonDiff) {
blank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth - 1)))
longBlank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth)))
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "{"
for key, value := range json1 {
quotedKey := fmt.Sprintf("\"%s\"", key)
if _, ok := json2[key]; ok {
switch value.(type) {
case map[string]interface{}:
if _, ok2 := json2[key].(map[string]interface{}); !ok2 {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
} else {
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": "
jsonDiffDict(value.(map[string]interface{}), json2[key].(map[string]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
}
case []interface{}:
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": "
if _, ok2 := json2[key].([]interface{}); !ok2 {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
} else {
jsonDiffList(value.([]interface{}), json2[key].([]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
}
default:
if !reflect.DeepEqual(value, json2[key]) {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
} else {
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value)
}
}
} else {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value)
}
diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
}
for key, value := range json2 {
if _, ok := json1[key]; !ok {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + "\"" + key + "\"" + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
}
}
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "}"
}

func jsonDiffList(json1, json2 []interface{}, depth int, diff *JsonDiff) {
blank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth - 1)))
longBlank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth)))
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "["
size := len(json1)
if size > len(json2) {
size = len(json2)
}
for i := 0; i < size; i++ {
switch json1[i].(type) {
case map[string]interface{}:
if _, ok := json2[i].(map[string]interface{}); ok {
jsonDiffDict(json1[i].(map[string]interface{}), json2[i].(map[string]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
} else {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
}
case []interface{}:
if _, ok2 := json2[i].([]interface{}); !ok2 {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
} else {
jsonDiffList(json1[i].([]interface{}), json2[i].([]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
}
default:
if !reflect.DeepEqual(json1[i], json2[i]) {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
} else {
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + marshal(json1[i])
}
}
diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
}
for i := size; i < len(json1); i++ {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i])
diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
}
for i := size; i < len(json2); i++ {
diff.HasDiff = true
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
}
diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "]"
}

func processContext(diff string, n int) string {
index1 := strings.Index(diff, "\n-")
index2 := strings.Index(diff, "\n+")
begin := 0
end := 0
if index1 >= 0 && index2 >= 0 {
if index1 <= index2 {
begin = index1
} else {
begin = index2
}
} else if index1 >= 0 {
begin = index1
} else if index2 >= 0 {
begin = index2
}
index1 = strings.LastIndex(diff, "\n-")
index2 = strings.LastIndex(diff, "\n+")
if index1 >= 0 && index2 >= 0 {
if index1 <= index2 {
end = index2
} else {
end = index1
}
} else if index1 >= 0 {
end = index1
} else if index2 >= 0 {
end = index2
}
pre := diff[0:begin]
post := diff[end:]
i := 0
l := begin
for i < n && l >= 0 {
i++
l = strings.LastIndex(pre[0:l], "\n")
}
r := 0
j := 0
for j <= n && r >= 0 {
j++
t := strings.Index(post[r:], "\n")
if t >= 0 {
r = r + t + 1
}
}
if r < 0 {
r = len(post)
}
return pre[l+1:] + diff[begin:end] + post[0:r+1]
}

func LoadJson(path string, dist interface{}) (err error) {
var content []byte
if content, err = ioutil.ReadFile(path); err == nil {
err = json.Unmarshal(content, dist)
}
return err
}